The purpose of this assignment is to analyze problems using utilitarianism and d

The purpose of this assignment is to analyze problems using utilitarianism and duty-oriented theories. You will review these two (2) case studies from Edge and Groves text (4th ed.) Ethics of Health care and will respond to the questions at the end of the case study:
•    Act Utilitarianism: Calculating the Pleasures and Pain (p. 47)
•    Duty-Oriented Reasoning: A Matter of Principle (p. 50-51)
Paper should be at least 2 typed, double spaced pages with at least 1 page per case. College level writing using APA formatting is expected. It is expected that you will use at least the textbook for a reference; additional research is optional. Title page is required but does not count for the 2 pages of content. 
Act Utilitarianism: Calculating the Pleasures and Pain (p. 47)
Jimenez is a seventy-eight-year-old chronic pulmonary disease patient (emphy sema) who has smoked two packs a day for forty years. He takes great enjoyment and satisfaction in smoking and does not want to quit. In that his illness is exacerbated by the smoking, his physician is demanding that he quit. Each time he tries to quit smoking. Mr. Jimenez becomes irritable and un happy. His wife and family hate it when he is not smoking because he becomes diffi cult to live with
Consider this case from the position of act utilitarianism and create a pleasure gained and pain avoided list to see if you can determine whether Mr. Jimenez should continue or quit smoking. 
Duty-Oriented Reasoning: A Matter of Principle (p. 50-51)
Juan and Joe are good friends. They both graduated from the same program and have gone to work in the same radiography department. Part of their duties is to be sure that the standby equipment is ready for service on the wards. Juan and Joe are working the night shift and while playing around, Juan inadvertently bumps the equipment, tips it over, and breaks the standby instrument. In that it was an accident Juan asks you, as a friend, not to tell anyone it was his fault. Accidents do happen. The two of you switch out the equipment, sending the broken piece down for maintenance, and put a working instrument on standby. In the morning your boss comes in and notices that the equipment had been sent down to maintenance. He asks what happened, and Juan says, “I dunno. Someone from out of the department must have bumped it or something. ” The boss looks at you and asks you the same question.
1. Solve this problem using duty-oriented or principled reasoning, remember that in this form of reasoning, it is not the consequences that are considered but rather the principles involved. 
2. What principles are involved in this case?
3. Do any of the principals involved conflict with each other?
4. Do some principles have a higher value than other?

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